A lot of factors go into the decision to hand build or outsource circuit boards. I hand build my own sometimes, simply because I enjoy the challenge. Of course most of the projects I design are for my own use, so timeliness isn't that important.
When I do design something that will go out to a customer, like my electronic business card holder, I will send the board through our shop. In those cases, quality is important, as is delivery, and the quantity is often too high to hand build. Machine building also allows me to use smaller and more complex parts.
That same decision — hand build or outsource — takes place in the heads of designers all over the country. When the decision is to outsource, there are a few important things to consider. Some things that work fine when hand soldering may stand in the way of quality, repeatability, and reliability when machine assembling.
Here are five of the most important considerations when changing from hand built to outsourced.
1. Use Solder Mask & Silkscreen
A good solder joint needs the right amount of solder in the right place. Solder will tend to flow down bare copper, bleeding outside of the area it belongs, and down exposed copper traces and vias.
The main purpose of solder mask is to keep the solder where it belongs. It also protects the traces, but that's a longevity issue. Solder bleeding is a manufacturing and reliability issue. This isn't a problem when hand soldering. In fact, it can even work to your advantage when hand soldering really small parts. It gives you more room for your soldering iron to hit metal.
Not so with solder paste and machine assembly. Use solder mask.
2. Avoid the Pseudo Panel
Keeping small boards in a panel is the recommended best practice in the manufacturing industry. We appreciate it and, while not always necessary, can reduce your costs. We sometimes see what we call a "pseudo panel." This is a board where multiples of the board are put in the same PCB, like a panel, but unlike a panel, the boards don't have routing or V-score between them. Sometimes the designer will put a bunch of vias to outline the board, or just ask that we use a bandsaw to separate them.
That's a time consuming, expensive, and potentially damaging process. The vibration of the saw can crack solder joints, and, you're unlikely to get boards that are all the same size. Have small boards panelized by your board house.
3. Family Panel (Pseudo or Not)
Similar to the pseudo panel is the family panel. A family panel is a case where a project is made up of several different PC boards, and they are all laid out together, as though they are one design. If the board isn't routed between to designs, you'll have the pseudo panel problem described above.
The bigger problem, though, comes with reference designators. We typically see family panels with duplicate reference designators. Each design, for example, will have its own C1, R1, Q1, etc. We use the reference designators as position identifiers/ If you have three different parts labeled R5, our machine programmers will have a problem with it. It's even worse if the values differ; on one design, C1 is a 0.1uf capacitor, while on another design, it's a 22pf cap.
If you're making a family panel, give each and every placement a different reference designator. One way would be to use extra digits. For example, on one design on the family panel could have C100, C101, C102... The next would be C200, C201, C203, and so on.
And, don’t forget the routing or V-score between the designs.
4. QFN — Hole in the Middle
A common technique in the hand soldering world, for soldering QFNs and other parts with thermal pads underneath is to put a big via in the middle of the center pad. By doing so, you can stick a soldering iron and some solder down through the hole and get a good solder connection on the bottom pad.
This doesn't work with machine assembly. the solder paste will flow down and out the hole in the reflow oven. You'll end up with a poor connection (or no connection) to the thermal pad, and solder slop on the back side of the board.
5. Parts and the Bill of Materials (BOM)
When I build my hobby projects, I often get a bit carefree with the bill of materials. It's not good practice, but I do. I'll put a part in the BOM that I used before, and not check to see if it's still in stock. I'll put parts in the BOM with just the values and not any part numbers. Things of that sort require tribal knowledge, which only the designer has.
When building, sometimes I'll just grab a part that's close. If I need an 0805 1uf, 10 volt capacitor, I can grab a 16 volt, 25 volt, etc. I can even make an 0603 part work. You as the designer may know that something close will work, but an outside house can't know. You need to tell them exactly what the part is.
Before sending anything through our shop, I do clean up the BOM. In order for us, or any manufacturer, to build the boards, the BOM needs:
- A unique reference designator for each part placement
- The quantity of each part used on the board
- The manufacturer
- The manufacturer's part number
- Digikey part numbers can be used as well
The transition from hand building to outsourced machine building can be an intimidating one. But, with a few considerations, it can be an easy and rewarding transition.
Duane Benson is the Chief Technology Champion at Screaming Circuits, a prototype PCB assembly electronic manufacturing company in Canby, Oregon.